The diarrhoea is one serious symptom associated with Gastroenteritis may be leading to a death of children. The high-altitude may had
an effect, according to Highland medicine, there is a strong relationship
between high-altitude and the diseases such as upper risk disturbances of
hypothermia and gastro-intestinal diseases.
This study identified access the scientific knowledge of diarrhoea, its
bacterial causes and the effect ranges of the high altitude on some bacterial
etiology of diarrhoea in children. That was through the study of symptoms
and diagnosis for cases in the pediatric department in Taif city public
hospitals. Taif city is area at high-altitude above sea level, therefore the
residents might expose to climatic conditions that help the microbial
infections. The comparison of Taif city data with Makkah city which is
normal-altitude and considered as low land to Taif city. In addition, study
the sequences of 16S rRNA and the determination of phylogenetic
relationships among chosen isolates.
This study was carried on in the government hospitals in Taif and
Makkah cities during (Nov. 2015 - Jun. 2016). The study had been
performed to compare some of bacterial etiology and symptoms associated
with complaints of diarrhoea due to gastroenteritis among children which
their age was between (2 to 12) years old, they were distributed into 3
group (2-4, 4-6 and 6-12) year.
The total number of children enrolled in this study were 767 cases;
(380 were from Taif and 372 cases were from Makkah). The results were
concluded; the distribution of gastro-enteritis cases according to the age,
there was an inverse relationship between gastro -enteritis and age groups
under study, and the highest percentage of cases was in Taif until the age of
(6-12) years, it was observed in Makkah was higher.
The distribution of gastro-enteritis cases according to the sex, the
rate of cases for females was higher than the males of both cities, and was
observed a higher cases of females in Makkah than Taif. The highest
percent of males was in Taif compared with Makkah. The difference in the
total of cases with diarrhoea of children gastro-enteritis where it was higher
in Taif than Makkah city.
The distribution of gastro-enteritis cases according to the clinical
diagnosis for symptoms; (severe, moderate and mild), there was an increase
in the number of cases in Taif from Makkah for severe and moderate
symptoms, while mild symptoms were higher in Makkah for all age groups
The distribution of gastro-enteritis cases for each age separately to
the total according to the clinical diagnosis, the difference between Taif
and Makkah was found. The total distribution rate was higher in Taif
except for the age group (6-12) years. The statistical analysis showed an
increase in the rates of Taif from Makkah, but the cases of mild symptoms
were in Makkah higher for the age groups (4-6 and 6-12) years.
The results, based on the distribution of intestinal bacteria revealed
the high incidence of infection in Taif compared to Makkah in the total and
for all age groups. The distribution of bacterial spp in total bacterial enteropathogens, in ascending order in Taif were as (Campylobacter spp,
Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and E. coli) respectively, while in Makkah
were as (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp and E. coli)
respectively. The rate of all bacterial infection was higher in Taif than
Makkah except (Campylobacter and E. coli).
The distribution of bacterial positive for enter-pathogens, in
ascending order in Taif were as (Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp,
Shigella spp and E. coli) respectively, while in Makkah (Salmonella spp,
Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp and E. coli) respectively, the rate of
infection of all bacteria was higher in Taif than Makkah expet
Campylobacter spp was equal in both cities .
The results revealed the similarity percentage of 16S rRNA
sequences for the selected isolates compared to those obtained . The results
showed that the isolate strains were as (1, 2 and 3) were similar to
(Shigella flexneri, E. coli, and Salmonella enterica), respectively. The
isolation strain was 4 as Campylobacter was difficult to obtain the
sequence of 16S rRNA genes, which gave a negative result, possibly due to
poor growth and the death in sending preparation to Korea and Jeddah